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Types of Wood


Introduction

Wood is divided into two main groups.
HARDWOOD and SOFTWOOD
It is hard to imagine what our ancestors were thinking when they put names to things. For instance why call a species of bear 'Black' when they are all colors. So it is with wood. A much better division would have been 'DECIDUOUS and CONIFER' which is in fact the true division. One of the softest woods known is Balsa (used for model airplanes etc.) but it is in fact a hardwood. (Go figure).


 
The first thing I must explain is how wood is cut because that makes a big difference to the final appearance and usefulness.
A LOG is cut into boards and becomes LUMBER (or TIMBER) or thinly sliced and becomes VENEER
There are two main ways that a log can be cut into lumber.

LUMBER

1. Plain Boards are all cut in the same direction
2. Quartered When hardwood such as oak is cut for the purpose of producing figure or when pine is cut to produce edge grain for flooring it is quarter-sawn. 

VENEER

Almost every figured hardwood is normally obtainable in veneers. The finest figured wood, indeed, is rarely on the market in any other form.
1. Saw-cut Saw cut veneer These are the stoutest, but the most costly: costly because about 50 per cent. of the log disappears in sawdust. They are seldom cut to-day because of this reason. 
2. Flat Knife cut Flat cutLike sawn veneers these are cut on the flat, the log being held stationary on a heavy bed while the knife is mounted upon a carriage which slides back and forth. In some cases the knife is stationary whilst the wood moves. The knife cuts across the grain at a slight angle and the finest figured veneers are produced in this way. Except in cases where the color might deteriorate (as in sycamore) the timber is steamed before cutting.
A veneer should preferably be laid in the same relative position as when cut from the flitch, though this cannot always be done. For instance, in a quartered panel two of the pieces are bound to be reversed.
3. Rotary cut Rotary cut veneerThis is quite a different method, although the veneers are again knife-cut. The logs used, about 6 ft. in length, are mounted on a kind of mammoth lathe and a lone knife is led up to it which pares off the veneer. The knife is so held against the revolving log that a sheer of veneer is peeled off its entire length, and the " unrolling " is continued until the core of the log is reached. The grain of the resulting veneer is wild and unnatural, but for plywood these rotary-cut veneers have been found excellent, and they can be produced at a much lower cost than by saw or flat-knife cutting.
4. Half Rotary Slicing Quartered veneerThis method is used for woods which are largely dependent upon being cut on the quarter (that is, in line with the medullary rays) to show good figure. As shown in the log is first quartered, and the quarter segments fixed in the machine with one of the corners nearest the sapwood at the centre. By revolving the segment about this centre the knife cuts a path which is approximately radial. In fact, the middle of each leaf is radial, the edges slightly diverging owing to the curved path of the cut.

A Map of the World showing origins of various woods

SOFTWOODS
PINE
(Pinus sylvestris)
.........................................................
Known alternatively as Scots pine, Scots fir, Red Baltic pine, Red pine, and Redwood.
Sources: Scandinavia, the Baltic States, Northern Russia., and to a lesser extent Scotland. 
color, yellowish white.
Weight, 26 Ib. per cubic foot.
The most important timber of commerce. Moderately strong, easily worked, and obtainable in every dimension, it is the recognised timber for general building construction. Regarded as the carpenter's standard wood it is used for roofing, joists, flooring, beams, partitions, window-frames, doors, fittings, kitchen furniture, and similar work. 
For ecclesiastical carved work it was extensively employed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
YELLOW PINE
(Pinus strobus)
Known also as Canadian pine, Ottawa pine, White pine, and (by agriculturalists) Weymouth pine.
Sources; Canada and parts of U.S.A. 
color, pale yellowish white.
Weight, 24 Ib. 
One hundred years ago this beautiful wood was used for every class of carpentry and joinery.
In staircases, window-frames, and doors of late nineteenth century houses it can still be admired.
PITCH PINE
(Pinus palustris)
Source: U.S.A. color, similar to Scots pine, but often with a strongly marked figure.
Weight, 42-43 Ib.
Uses; a con- structional wood for shipbuilding work, beams, piles, struts, church pews, spring mattresses, etc. The wood is highly resinous.
OTHER PINES Kauri, White pine, Rimu, and Totara of New Zealand, the Murray (cypress species) of Australia, and the Huon of Tasmania. It may be added that the word " deal," frequently applied to pine, is a timber term describing boards of certain dimensions; it is not the name of any particular wood.
DOUGLAS FIR
(Pseudotsuga taxifolia,
or douglasii)
Commonly known also as British Columbian pine, Oregon pine, Idaho pine, Red pine. Red fir, and Yellow fir.
Source: British Columbia and parts of U.S.A.
color, somewhat redder than pine. 
Weight, 32-34 Ib.One of the tallest and grandest trees in the world, the Douglas fir yields timber for endless purposes. Among these are bridge construction, ship masts, spars and booms, telegraph and telephone poles, piles, sleepers, decking, flooring, agricultural implements, and every type of carpentry and joinery. The timber is straight-grained and tough and is highly water-resistant. 
SPRUCE
(Picea abies)
Also
(picea excelsa)
Commonly designated Whitewood. 
Sources: Europe, including the British Isles, Canada, and U.S.A. 
color, cream white. 
Weight, 28-34 Ib. 
Used extensively for packing-cases, fencing, etc., but also frequently (on account of its lustrous surface when finished) for kitchen table tops, dressers, cupboards, and flooring.
SITKA SPRUCE
(Picea sitchensis)
Known also as Silver spruce. 
Sources; Western Canada and U.S.A. 
Weight, 27 Ib. 
This is another giant conifer, the timber used largely for aeroplane construction, house building, agricultural implements, piano soundboards, organ pipes, oars, paddles, cooperage. 
Canada also produces three other varieties of spruce (termed " white." " black," ,and " red "). These are used chiefly for packing-case work and pulp.
HEMLOCK
(Tsuga canadensis 
and 
Tsuga heterophylla)
Sources: Canada, British Columbia, and U.S.A. (N.W.).
color, pale brown. 
Weight, 29-30 Ib.
A general utility softwood, often classed as fir or spruce.
LARCH
(Larix europoea)
Sources: Great Britain and Europe generally.
color, warm light red, often nicely streaked. 
Weight, 47-48 Ib. 
The timber is much heavier than pine or spruce. Its principal uses are for outdoor work of all descriptions, including bridges, piles, sleepers, posts, telegraph poles, pit props, farm gates and fencing, agricultural implements, garden fencing, and furnishings, flooring, etc. 
Siberian larch (Larix sibirica), is a fine wood
Alpine larch (Larix lyallii) from Canada is coarse-grained 
WESTERN RED CEDAR
(Thuja plicata)
Source: British Columbia.
color, pale yellowish brown, turning grey on exposure.
Weight, 22 Ib.
This timber has many qualities. Left unpainted it does not deteriorate, and it is thus used for complete buildings. Of close, even and straight grain, it is easy to work and leaves a smooth silky surface. A scented oil renders it free from insect attack, and as it is also resistant to dry rot it is used for all kinds of garden woodwork. It stands up well to central heating .
The tree is the largest of American cedars.
CEDAR, PORT ORFORD
(Cupressus Lawsoniana)
Known also as Lawson's Cyprus. 
Source: California. 
color, creamy white. 
Weight, 34 Ib.
CEDAR, PENCIL
(Juniperis Virginia)
Sources; U.S.A. and the Caribbean.
color, from pale yellow to pinkish-red. 
Weight, 26-34 Ib. 
Used chiefly for pencil making. Under the tool it gives a surface which in smoothness has no equal.
SEQUOIA 
(Sequoia sempervirens)
Known generally in America as Redwood.
color, pinkish-red.
Weight, 25 Ib. 
The greatest tree in the world, no special importance attached to its timber.
The wood is soft in texture and straight in grain, but lacks strength.
YEW
(Taxus baccata)
Source: Europe. 
color, pale red. 
Weight, 48-50 Ib.
Used in early days were for archers' bows, later for doors, panelling, and chairs. Now occasionally used for golf club shafts.
HARDWOODS
ACACIA. See Robinia...................................................................
ALDER
(Alnus glutinosa)
Sources: Europe, Asia, and North Africa. 
Weight 30-40 Ib. 
A sapwood tree common along the banks of streams. Used for piles and also for clog soles.
APPLE 
(Malus pumila)
Sources: Europe and America. 
Weight, 48 Ib.
Hard and dense, the timber is used for mallet heads, golf clubs, tool handles, and general turnery.
Stained it provides a good substitute for ebony.
ASH
(Fraxinus excelsior)
Source: Europe. 
color, yellowish-white. 
Weight, 46-47 Ib. 
Uses: carriage building, wheelwright's work, agricultural implements, tool handles, sports goods, etc.
Its long grain and classic qualities have made it indispensable for shafts and felloes, agricultural vehicles of all kinds, ladders and poles, axe hafts and tool handles, hockey sticks, croquet mallets, wickets, cask hoops, etc. American ash (mostly Fraxinus americana) is similar but is less tough.
BALSA
(Ochromna)
: Central and South America. 
color, almost white. 
Weight, 9-10 Ib. 
Uses; rafts, life-belts, and parts of aircraft. 
The lightest timber known, balsa is only about half the weight of cork. It has a remarkable elasticity, but is very soft and porous. In this country it has been found useful for models.
BASSWOOD
(Tilia glabra)
Sources: U.S.A. and Canada. 
color, yellowish white. 
Occasionally confused with canary, basswood has a considerable use in the piano and motor trades.
BAYWOOD See under Mahogany.
BEECH
(Fagus sylvatica)
Source: Europe generally. 
color, light yellow.
Weight, 43 Ib. 
Uses: chair making, planes, textile machinery work, tool handles, turning, domestic goods, toys. 
Unsuitable for outdoor work. With qualities of strength and durability beech has a wide value. It is used for butcher's blocks and for endless household purposes. For planes it is the standard timber, being close grained and with a fine texture. In cabinet work it is restricted chiefly to chair manufacture.
Canadian beech (Fagus grandifolia) is very largely imported for chair making, lending itself favourably to steam bending. New Zealand has two beeches, red and silver. 
BIRCH
(Betula pendula
and 
Betula pubescens)
Sources: Europe and Canada.
color, soft brown. 
Weight, 47-48 Ib. 
Uses; plywood, chairs, brush backs, agricultural implements, and general woodwork.
The Canadian birch (Betulo lutea) is a tree of far greater dimensions . It makes excellent plywood and is used in the carriage-building trades and for spools, bobbins, and other turnery.
BLACK BEAN
(Castanospermum australe)
Source: Queensland, New South Wales. 
color, olive green with dark stripes. 
Weight, 48 Ib. 
Uses: panelling, doors, fitments, etc.
BLACKWOOD
(Dalbergia melanoxylon)
Source; East Africa. 
color, almost pure black. 
Weight, about 89 Ib. (one of the heaviest known). 

Uses; musical instruments, knife and surgical instrument handles, turnery.

BOXWOOD
(Buxus sempervirens)
Sources: Europe and Asia. 
color, a uniform yellow. 
Weight, 54-60 Ib. 
Uses: engravers' blocks, lathe chucks, chessmen, fancy boxes, foot rules, scales, fine turnery. The wood is very close and dense and leaves a glossy surface from the plane. Box is a sapwood,
CANARY 
or 
American Whitewood
(Liriodendron tulipiferu)
Source: U.S.A. (the timber of the tulip tree). 
color, from yellow to greyish-yellow. 
Uses: interior woodwork, shop fittings, piano work, mouldings, etc.
CEDAR
(Cedrela mexicana)
Sources: Mexico, Honduras, Cuba, and Central America generally. 
color, red. 
Weight, 27-33 Ib. 
Uses: chiefly cigar-box making. 
The wood has a characteristic fragrance.
Of many cedars the three that are accepted as true cedars are (1) the cedar of Lebanon in Syria, (2) the deodar from the Himalaya, (3) the Atlas from the African Atlas Mountains.
Coniferous cedars are mentioned under softwoods,
CHERRY
(Prunus avium), European, 
and 
(Prunus serotina), American
Sources: Europe generally (the wild cherry, or gean), U.S.A., and Canada. 
color, reddish. 
Weight, 33-45 Ib. 
Uses; chairs and brush backs. 
The wood stains to a good imitation of mahogany.
CHESTNUT
(Castanea sativa)
Sources: Europe generally. 
color, similar to oak. 
Weight, 28-29 Ib. 
Uses: indoor woodwork, panelling, etc., also cleft fencing. 
Chestnut is found in the woodwork of many old continental churches. This timber (sweet chestnut) must not be confused with horse chestnut.
COCOBOLO
(Dalbergia retusa)
Sources: Central and Southern America.
color, rich red, finely veined. 
Weight, 86 Ib. 
Uses: musical instruments, knife-handles, brush backs, small turnery.
EBONY
(Diospyros ebenum)
Sources: Southern India, Sri Lanka, and Burma.
color, black interspersed with shades of brown, purple, and grey. 
Weight vary- ing), 48-77 Ib. 
Uses: piano keys, walking-sticks, chessmen, boxes, and general ornamental work and turnery. Little if any is now available for furniture.
Macassar ebony from the Dutch Celebes is a richly streaked wood supplied almost wholly in veneers. Coromandel (or calamander) is a finely striped ebony from Ceylon.
ELM, BRITISH
(Ulmus procera)
color, light brown. 
Weight, 36 Ib.
Uses: naves of heavy vehicles, wooden pumps (in former times), coffins, under- water structures, boat-building, and general construction, including wheelwright's work, which calls for strength and durability.
Other elms are the White elm and the Rock elm of Canada, the latter a strong constructional timber.
ELM, WYCH
(Ulmus glabra)
Source: Europe. 
Weight, 33 Ib. 
Sometimes known as the Scots elm. Uses are similar to those of the common elm.
GABOON
(Aucoumea klaineana)
Sources: French equatorial Africa and Spanish Guinea. 
Weight, 25 Ib. 
Uses; plywood and laminboard, inside parts of furniture. 
Light, but moderately hard, the timber has a very large consumption for secondary work. The French name is okowne.
GREENHEART 
(ocotea rodiei)
Sources: British Guiana, etc. 
color, brown with an occasional green shade. 
Weight, 67 Ib. 
Uses: shipbuilding, deck, and similar work; but, on account of its remarkable elasticity, chiefly for salmon and trout fishing rods. 
A somewhat similar wood is Washiba.
GUM, AMERICAN RED
also well known as 
Satin walnut 
(Liquidambar styraciflua)
Source: U.S.A. 
color, mild brown, at times nicely marked.
Weight, 37-38 Ib. 
Uses: bedroom furniture, panelling, railway carriage work, toys, stripwood, fretwork.
The British term " satin walnut" for this wood was dropped, as leading to confusion however the name is still widely used.
HICKORY
(Carya, Hicoria, various)
Sources: Canada and Eastern U.S.A.
color, whitish-yellow to yellowish-brown. 
Weight, 46-47 Ib. 
Uses: unequalled for shafts and golf clubs, axe, pick, and other handles, oars, bent work, etc. It leaves a beautifully smooth surface from the tool.
HOLLY
(Ilex aquifolium)
Source: Europe generally. 
color, ivory white.
Weight, 47 Ib. 
Uses : inlaying, strings and bandings, small turnery, and light decorative work. 
The whitest known wood.
HORNBEAM
(Carpinus betulus)
Source: Europe, including British Isles
color, greenish white; a sapwood. 
Weight, 51-52 Ib. 
Uses: engineers' work wood screws also parts of piano action work. 
A strong, tough wood difficult to split.
HORSE CHESTNUT
(Aesculus hippocastanum)
Source: British Isles and elsewhere in Europe. 
color, almost white. 
Weight, 36 Ib. 
IRONBARK
Eucalyptus, various
Source, Queensland and New South Wales. 
Weight, 63-70 Ib. 
Australia produces five or six different species of lumber classed as Ironbark. These vary, but their general uses are for piles heavy constructional work, sleepers, wagon frames, and wheelwright's work, etc.
JARRAH
(Eucalyptus marginata)
Source: Western Australia. 
color dark red. Weight, 57 Ib. 
Uses; heavy constructional work, cabinet work. 
Strong and durable, it is resistant to fire.
LABURNUM
(Laburnum anagyroldes)
Source: British Isles and Europe generally. 
color, rich olive green. 
Weight, 53 Ib. 
Uses almost exclusively for the familiar 'oysters' seen on decorative veneers. The grain of the wood is very strong and ungovernable.
LAUREL
(Terminalia tomentosa)
Sources: India and Burma. 
color from warm yellow to brown, handsomely figured. 
Weight, varies from 50 to 70 Ib
Uses: high-class office and library fittings, panelling, furniture.
LIGNUM VITAE
(Gualacun officinale)
Sources: West Indies and tropical America. 
color, dark brown, streaked with black. 
Weight 88-89 Ib 
Uses- axle bearings, bushes, bowling balls, ornamental cups. pulley blocks, turnery. Intensely hard, gummy, and difficult to split, it is the heaviest of recognised commercial timbers.
LIME
(Tilia vulgaris)
Sources: Europe, including British Isles 
color yellowish-white. 
Weight, 37-38 Ib. 
Uses: piano case work, carving, and turnery.
MAHOGANY. CUBAN
(Swietenia mahogani)
Source: Cuba. 
Weight 40 lb.
MAHOGANY, CENTRAL AMERICAN
(HONDURAS)
(Swietenia macrophylla)
Sources- British Honduras. Mexico, Panama, Tobasco, Brazil, Peru. etc. 
Weight, 30 Ib
MAHOGANY AFRICAN
(Khaya ivorensis)
Source; West Africa. 
Weight, from 30 to 38 lb.
MAHOGANY, AUSTRALIAN (Dysoxylum frazeranum) Source: Australia.
Weight, 50 lb.
MAHOGANY
For cabinet work no other wood presents such essential qualities. Its rich red color, varying according to species, is well known whilst its marvellous figure, roe curled, and mottled, never fails to attract. Strong and durable, it works well under the tool, leaving the contours of mouldings sharp and clean. It yields, too, the highest effects in polishing. Cuban mahogany, now scarce, has always been held as the finest. The so- called Honduras variety is drawn from several Central American states and islands and at present is probably the best known. Whilst the figure of Cuban is superior' the Honduras timber has held its own for general use. Obviously the richest figured boards of all varieties are reserved for veneers.
Bay wood is a term often incorrectly applied to Honduras mahogany, the name originally applied to timber shipped from the Bay of Honduras. The word bears no relation to the bay cedar of South America or the bay tree of Asia.
The West African mahoganies of the khaya species are drawn principally from the forests of Nigeria. Ivory Coast, and Gofd Coast. Frequently they are known under the ports of shipment, thus, Assinie. Axim. Benin, Cape Lopez, Grand Bassam, Lagos, Sussandra, and Sekondi. Hardly inferior to the Central American woods their working qualities are good, and all are noted for strength, stiffness, and durability. Unusual lengths and liberal girths are obtainable.
The Australian mahogany, much heavier than the others, is really a species of eucalyptus. It is dense, heavy, gummy, and rather obstinate under the tool. Although sometimes termed "rose" mahogany it bears no resemblance to rosewood. 
MAPLE
(Acer, various)
Sources: Canada and U.S.A.; also Europe. 
color, varied yellow. 
Weight, 37 Ib. 
Uses; textile trade work. billiard cues, violins, letter blocks, shoe lasts, turnery; also suitable for flooring. 
" Bird's eye " maple, with its beautiful mottled figure, is cut from the Rock maple (Acer saccharum).
OAK, BRITISH (
Quercus robur)
Source: British Isles. 
Weight, 52-57 Ib.
OAK, EUROPEAN
(Quercus pedunculata 
and 
sessiliflora)
Sources: Baltic States, Russia, Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia, etc. 
Weight, averaging 47 Ib.
OAK, AMERICAN
(Quercus rubra, etc.)
Sources: U.S.A. and Eastern Canada. 
Weight, 41-42 Ib.
OAK, JAPANESE
(Quercus mongolica)
Source Southern Japan. 
Weight, 40-47 Ib.
OAK, SILKY
(Cardwellia sublimis)
Source Australia. 
 Weight, 37 Ib.

 OAK
Whilst for strength and durability British oak is unsurpassed it is not available in much quantity.
Apart from high-class furniture oak's principal uses are for shipbuilding, barge and boat work, roof trusses, railway wagon and carriage construction, wheelwright's work, outdoor parts, and general construction work for which its pre-eminent mechanical properties have no equal. It is by no means an easy wood to work, and in planing a slight reduction of the normal cutting angle is advisable. Figured oak is invariably cut on the quarter to show the silver grain to full advantage.
The Northern European oaks, differing only slightly from the British variety, are shipped mainly from Danzig and Riga, the so-called Austrian or Hungarian woods being derived from the Crotian and Slavonian forests. These latter woods are milder.
Of American oak there are several varieties, all lighter in weight than European oak. For ship-building and general constructional work it is in great demand, and the cabinet trade employ it economically for parts which are not definitely show wood. 
The silky oak of Australia is not a true oak, but has been found admirable for furniture purposes. It works well and gives a pleasantly mottled finish.

OLIVE
(Olea hochstetteri)
Source: East Africa. 
color, rich yellowish brown. 
Uses: chiefly fancy boxes, cigar and cigarette cases, brush backs, etc.
PADAUK
(Pterocarpus dalbergloides)
Sources: Andaman Islands and Burma. 
color, usually a brilliant red, with darker streaks, but frequently turns to a greyish black on exposure. 
Weight, 54-59 Ib. 
Uses: bank and office fittings, panelling; also used locally for building purposes, cart frames, spokes and felloes.
PEAR 
(Pyrus communis)
Source: Europe generally. 
color, pale reddish yellow. 
Weight, 47-48 Ib. 
Uses: chiefly carving, T-squares, set-squares, draughts- man's curves, etc. 
Grain is short and close, cutting sharp in every direction. For many old carved figures, forks, spoons, bowls, and other domestic utensils pear was used.
PLANE,
London 
(Platanus acerifolia )
Source: Europe, including British Isles. 
color, light yellow to pale red. 
Weight, 30-40 Ib. 
Uses: shuttles, shoe lasts, golf club heads, turnery. 
On the Continent it has a restricted use for furniture. 
Cut on the quarter, richly figured and mottled plane is frequently termed " lacewood."
PLUM 
(Prunus domestica)
Source: Europe generally. 
color, brownish- red, nicely streaked. 
Weight, 50-53 Ib. 
Uses: tobacco pipes, tool handles, turnery.
POPLAR 
(Populus, various)
Sources; British Isles. Europe, Canada, and U.S.A. 
color, whitish yellow and whitish grey. 
Weight, 31-35 Ib. 
Uses; chiefly packing-cases and toys, formerly for inlaying. The ornamental Lombardy poplar has no timber value.
ROBINIA, 
familiarly known as 
Acacia
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Sources: America and Europe. 
Weight, 40-50 Ib. 
Uses negligible 
In the U.S.A. it is known as Black locust.
ROSEWOOD 
(Dalbergia, various)
Sources: Brazil, British Honduras, and East Indies. 
color, dark purple brown, banded with stripy markings. 
Weight, 53-63 Ib. according to variety. 
Uses (almost wholly in veneer form): piano cases, cabinets, ornamental boxes, inlaying, etc. The beautiful Brazilian wood is known under the name of Rio, the port of shipment. 
SAPELE 
(Entandrophragma 
clylindricum)
Source: East and West Africa.
color, birch brown. 
Weight, 44 Ib. 
Uses; interior furniture parts, veneering.
Hitherto listed as one of the African mahoganies, the standardised name is now sapele. The trees grow to a great height, many producing squared logs of six feet. 
SATIN WALNUT.  See Gum.
SATINWOOD
East Indian 
(Chloroxylon swietenia)
Sources: Sri Lanka, India, Burma. 
color, rich yellow. 
Weight, 59 Ib.
SATINWOOD
West Indian 
(Fagara flava)
Sources: Bahamas, Jamaica, San Domingo, and Puerto Rico. 
Weight, 51-52 Ib. 
Uses: In the later eighteenth century largely for furniture; now employed chiefly in veneer form and for inlay stringings. 
In Ceylon it is used for constructive purposes. Figured satinwood ranks as one of the most beautiful woods known.
SYCAMORE
(Acer pseudo platanus)
Sources: British Isles and Europe generally. color, nearly milk white, often richly mottled. 
Weight, 38-39 Ib.
Uses: flooring, textile trade work, rollers, cabinet work, ship-cabin fitments, dairy utensils, domestic goods, turnery.
In the North of England, the sycamore tree is often incorrectly called the plane, from which it differs in many respects, growth, leaf, and fruit. As distinct from the plane, the sycamore belongs to the maple family (acer).
The dyed grey wood fashionable for bedroom furniture (occasionally called " harewood ") is produced from sycamore.
TEAK
(Tectona grandis)
Sources; Burma, India, etc. 
color, brown, sometimes straw, but tending to darken on exposure. 
Weight, 45 Ib. 
Uses: shipbuilding, railway work, building construction, high-class joinery, gates, garden furniture, etc.
One of the most valuable timbers of the world, teak has an enormous consumption, and being strongly fire-resistant and immune from the attack of the white ant, its uses cover almost every department of woodwork. Its resistance to crushing and transverse strain has earned for it the reputation of being the strongest timber available. 
WALNUT. EUROPEAN
(Juglans regia)
Sources: Great Britain, France, Italy, Black Sea area, etc. 
Weight, 40-48 Ib.
WALNUT, AMERICAN BLACK
(Juglans nigra)
Source; Eastern U.S.A, 
Weight, 37-38 Ib.
WALNUT, AFRICAN
(Lovoa Klaineana)
Alternatively known as Nigerian walnut, tigerwood, congowood, etc. 
Source: West Africa. 
Weight, 31 Ib.
WALNUT. JAPANESE
(Juglans sieboldiana)
Source; chiefly Manchuria.
Weight. 32 Ib.
Of all the walnuts the American " black " is the most universally used, its working qualities and its pleasing purple brown color rendering it a favourite wood for library, dining-room, office, and general furniture. In texture and color and in its resistance to shrinkage, splitting, and denting, walnut has appealed alike to cabinetmaker, carver, turner, mould cutter, and polisher. Apart from its use for furniture and high-class office fitments, it is employed for gun stocks, tobacco pipes, the keys of orchestral xylophones, etc. color varies in different species from pale to very dark brown. Beautiful timber is also imported from the Black Sea area, this is known as Circassian or Caucassian walnut. The African and Japanese walnuts are much lighter in weight than the European and American.
WILLOW
(Salix alba, etc.)
Sources: Europe, including British Isles; also (a different variety) U.S.A. 
color, pale greyish-yellow. 
Weight, 24-25 Ib.
Uses (according to species): cricket bats, basket work. 
The wood is strongly resistant to splitting.
I am sorry that some country names are outdated but the information remains the same.